Infrared technique: 1970 – present


Infrared technique: From 1970 to present

Research activities by the Infrared group since the seventies can be summarised as follows: 

  • Signature models for ships, aircraft and their environment: validation, camouflage and countermeasures, period
    Tests in the Peel, Waalsdorp, Lichteiland Goeree, Reksteren, Oude Schilt, IJmuiden, Livorno (SIVEX en POLLEX), Crete (LAPTEX), Halifax (SIMVEX, SHIPIR), Salisbury (EMBOW, NIRATAM).
  • Atmospheric propagation since 1970.
    Tests at Westerschelde, REM-eiland, Ypenburg (OPAQUE), Noordwijk (MAPTIP), San Diego (EOPACE), Duck, Monterey, Inishere, Lorient, Sylt, Sürendorf (VAMPIRA), Abu Dhabi (UAE2), Hawai (RED), Simonstown (FATMOSE).
  • Making signatures of incoming, low-flying aircraft and missiles from 1971 onwards.
    Tests in Toulon, Taranto, Vlieland, Bergen Hohne (TOW), Puerto Rico (MAYEX), Biscarosse, White Sands, Olomouc (RPG7).
  • Research into the camouflage of Air Defense Sites since 1973.
    Tests in Freinhausen, Murnau, Zweibrücken AFB (Joint Field Trials).
  • Signatures of vehicles from 1975.
    Tests at TNO Waalsdorp (Den Haag, Netherlands), Meppen (IRIS), Negev-desert, Sardinië (CHAR) and Nettuno.
  • Research into the camouflage of vehicles and countermeasures such as smoke and decoys from 1978.
    Tests at Bourges, Raufoss (PG16), Ft. Huachuca, Ft. Sill, Eglin AFB, Ft. Grayling (SMOKE WEEK), Oldebroek, Mourmelon (BEST-TWO) and Athens (forest fires).
  • Detection of small surface targets at sea since 1985.
    Tests in Nettuno, REM island, Den Helder, Curaçao (WATIX), Simonstown, Mobile, detection from a Lockheed P-3 Orion aeroplane of submarine sniffers and periscopes in the North Sea.

In these experiments, use was made in several cases of purchased measuring equipment, such as the AGA Thermovision, a Barnes radiometer, a Barr and Stroud IR18 camera, a BOMEM Fourier spectrometer, a 10 μm UA 9092 camera (borrowed from Philips USFA) and later Focal Plane Array cameras such as the Inframetrics Thermacam, the Radiance1 and HS, a 10 μm Quantum Well camera and uncooled cameras with microbolometer arrays.

Self-developed test equipment:

  • WBS I and II: slow thermal image scanner for slow infrared phenomena
  • FLORIS scanner: two-colour aeroplane scanner for use in Neptune aircraft of the Navy

    FLORIS 2 post processing: The line scanner images made from the aircraft were recorded with an Ampex video recorder. Back on earth, the images were displayed on the video tube in this photo box and recorded on 70 mm colour film.
    FLORIS 2 post-processing: The line scanner images made from the aircraft were recorded with an Ampex video recorder. Back on the ground, the images were displayed on the video tube in this photo box and recorded on 70 mm colour film. 
  • Wake detection scanner: a highly sensitive scanner for submarine detection from a Bréguet Atlantic
  • PANZO: for measurements on incoming aircraft
  • ELSCA: scanning radiometer for measuring radiation from the environment
  • Scan simulator: simulation of the effect of geometric resolution on total performance
  • Infrared transmissometer: measurements by sea (6 and 18 km) in 2 spectral bands (4 and 10 μm)
  • ETIS: fast thermal imaging camera with linear HgCdTe detector array (50 elements)
  • DUDA: for measuring on vehicles and ships; also sold to France
  • Multispectral retro-reflection meter: for optimal band selection laser scanners
  • FWS: filter wheel spectrometers for spectral measurements of exhaust gases
  • FWSE: filter wheel spectral emitter for spectral measurements on sensors
  • MARCS: a multi-spectral camera for application in ITC plane
  • BETA camera: for images of ships from Bréguet Atlantic
  • M3S: multi-spectral radiometer for flash measurements in the combat field
  • IRMA: fast radiometer for measurement on decoys of aircraft
  • TBS: target and background scanner
  • MPTR: six-channel transmission gauge for smoke qualification; also sold to RARDE and FFO
  • MSCCD: tri-colour camera for forest fire detection
  • MSRT: seven-channel multi-spectral transmissometer for smoke and atmospheric measurements
  • Gas cloud scanner for gas detection in workspaces
  • Rosette Scan Seeker for the evaluation of decoy use of aircraft
  • LION tester: for testing the thermal and geometric resolution of the LION camera
  • One-eye radiometers for the registration of apparent temperatures of ship walls
  • Fast humidity meters working at 0.9 and 1.4 μm

Follow the page links for more about photodetectors and the OPAQUE measurements.

A speciality of the Infrared group was building all kinds of infrared test sources:

  • the TAIWAN consists of six plates of 2 x 2 meters with different temperatures (Orpheus)
  • the gas-energised floating source (used at sea)
  • the 2 x 2 and 1 x 2 metre test plates for land targets
  • collimated point sources for smoke measurements with the MPTR
  • modulated sources for transmissometry
  • a modulated target for Exocet measurements; testing the SSS and SBS sources under a helicopter for SIRIUS
  • 2 x 2 metre beer beam source for Sperwer resolution measurement
  • 0.4 x 0.4 metre plate sources in a mast on a ship for propagation measurements (also supplied to NATO)
  • helicopter source for IRSCAN tests.