PHased ARray Universal Sar (PHARUS): a polarimetric C-band airborne SAR

PHARUS (PHased ARray Universal Sar) was a full polarimetric C-band (5.3 GHz) aircraft Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) that was used to image the earth’s surface. It was designed and built by TNO-FEL in The Hague, NLR in Amsterdam and the Delft University of Technology under program management of the Netherlands Agency for Aerospace Programs (NIVR) in Delft. TNO-FEL was the main contractor and was responsible for project management. Financial support for the project was provided by the Ministry of Defence and by the Netherlands Remote Sensing Board (BCRS).

T/R-modules of PHARUS
T/R-modules of PHARUS


PHARUS under NLR's Cessna
PHARUS under NLR’s Cessna

SAR systems are distinguished by their high azimuth resolution capability, achieved through signal processing of the Doppler shifts generated by the forward motion of the radar and aircraft. The azimuth resolution in such a system is theoretically independent of the operating distance with the highest obtainable resolution in the order of several meters. SAR systems like PHARUS can generate radar images day and night and in all weather conditions. More on the Principle of SAR and polarimetry can be read at the bottom of this page.

The PHARUS system was divided into three subsystems:

  • the radar in the pod outside the aircraft,
  • the onboard data processing and recording inside the aircraft,
  • the ground-based SAR processing.

The PHARUS system had a modular architecture, enabling easy adaptation to specific requirements and a user-oriented configuration. The use of a modular phased array enabled a fixed mounting of the radar to the aircraft and avoids gimbaling systems making this SAR concept also suited for small aircraft, which considerably reduced operating costs. The system was capable of operating under turbulent conditions. PHARUS was fully programmable, featuring single and multi-polarisation modes and the selection of resolution and range. Even pulse-to-pulse beam steering was supported, enabling advanced features like spotlight mode, active nulling and multi-target tracking.

Some key features of the PHARUS system were:

  • Modern solid-state radar technology
  • Modular system architecture
  • A modular active phased array antenna
  • Programmable radar characteristics
  • Programmable recording and data-processing
  • Internal calibration
  • Supports satellite-simulating modes (ASAR)

Key specifications of the PHARUS system were:

  • Frequency: 5.3 GHz (C-band)
  • Transmit power: 2OW/module
  • Resolution: 3.75 m in range, up to 1 m azimuth
  • Range up to 30 km
  • Swath width up to 20 km

Before the construction of PHARUS started, experience in the field of SAR had been gained through the development of a prototype system with limited capabilities, called PHARS. This small but powerful system was successfully tested in November 1990 and provided good SAR imagery. PHARS also successfully participated in the ERS-l CAL/VAL campaign in Norway.

PHARS transmit and receive antenna
PHARS transmit and receive antenna



Flights with PHARS and PHARUS

(The table below was captured from the year 2000 Pharus project’s webpage and extended with the later flights;
  most images can be enlarged by clicking on them)

PHARUS pod design
PHARUS pod design


  August 25, 1992 PHARS trial above Amsterdam

Recording date  August 25, 1992
Track angle  0 N
Altitude  4,877 m
Centre incidence angle  35 Left
Processing mode 12 looks, 50% overlap
Resolution  6 m * 6 m
Number of pixels 768 * 768
  February 11, 1994 Langeoog, Germany by PHARS

Langeoog, Germany by PHARS

Recording date  February 11, 1994
Track angle  179 N
Altitude  4,877 m
Centre incidence angle  35 Left
Processing mode  12 looks, 50% overlap
Resolution 6m * 6m
Number of pixels 768 * 768
  February 1, 1995 PHARS was flown over some of the flooded areas in the Netherlands. The image shows an area on the border between Belgium and the Netherlands, near Maaseik, showing the river Maas and the flooded areas surrounding it. The image was recorded at an altitude of 4300 m, imaging a swath of 6 km, starting at 5700 m range. The image was processed to a 6-metre resolution using six independent looks. 

Flood of the Maas
Flood of the Maas
  April 19th, 1995 The PHARUS project became on-line
PV1 October 5th, 1995 Linge, Leerdam
First PHARUS image
First PHARUS image
Scene id  Leerdam, Netherlands
Recording date  22 September 1995
Polarisation VV
Altitude  5,000 m
Horizontal  Flight direction
Vertical  7 – 14 km
Processing mode  4 looks, slant to ground range converted
Resolution  3 m * 3 m
Pixel spacing 2 m* 2 m
PV2 October 12th, 1995 Geldermalsen
De Betuwe
De Betuwe


Scene id  Geldermalsen, The Netherlands
Recording date  22 September 1995
Polarisation  VV (CO1)
Polarisation  VH (X1)
Altitude  5,000 m
Horizontal  flight direction
Vertical  7 – 14 km slant range
Processing mode 4 looks, slant to 
ground range converted
Resolution  3 m * 3 m
Pixel spacing  2 m * 2 m
PV3 January 11th, 1996 Almere

PV03 over Almere
PV3 over Almere
PV4 April 12th, 1996 Eemnes, Amersfoort

PV5 April 25th, 1996 Vlasakkers, Noordoost Polder, Soesterberg, Amersfoort, Leusderheide,
Giethoorn, Heerde

PV6 April 26th, 1996 Soesterberg, Amersfoort, Leusderheide, Apeldoorn, Volkel, Goirle, Gilze,
Biesbosch, West Track (Pernis-Den Haag)
Den Haag-Scheveningen-Wassenaar
Den Haag-Scheveningen-Wassenaar

PV7 July 16th, 1996 Noord-Oost Polder PHARUS Familiarisation flight

Noord-Oost Polder - verschillende gewassen
Noord-Oost Polder – different crops
PV8 July 16th, 1996 PHARUS Familiarisation flight
PV9 August 27th, 1996 Wadden PHARUS Familiarisation flight, Sea bottom topography, Cartography in
tidal area’s

PV10 October 21th, 1996 Reichswald
Reichswaldopname - three polarisations
Reichswald – three polarisations
Scene id  Reichswald (Germany)
Recording date  22 Oct 1996 
Polarimetric  yes 
Colour composition  R=VV,G=HV,B=HH
Altitude  4,600 m
Orientation  NNW
Processing mode 5 look
Resolution  approx 3.4 m * 3.4 m
PV11 October 24th, 1996 Swynnerton (UK) Radar jamming experiment
PV12 May 22th, 1997 First PHARUS Test flight 1997
PV13 May 29th, 1997 PHARUS Familiarisation flight
PV14 May 29th, 1997 PHARUS Familiarisation flight

Amsterdam & Schiphol
Amsterdam & Schiphol : The airplane on the runway shows a resolution
PV15 May 30th, 1997 PHARUS Familiarisation flight
PV16 June 2th, 1997 PHARUS Familiarisation flight

MTI above Zoetermeer - detect traffic speeds
MTI above Zoetermeer – detect traffic speeds
PV17 September 11th, 1997 PHARUS test flight for Freiburg mapping experiment, also the Reichswald
PV18 October 28th, 1997 Freiburg PHARUS test flight for improved data handling

PV19 October 30th, 1997 The Freiburg mapping experiment
PV20 October 30th, 1997 The Freiburg mapping experiment
PV21 January 27th, 1998

Road detection; Leidsche Rijn/Utrecht mapping
Road detection; Leidsche Rijn/Utrecht mapping
PV22 January 29th, 1998 Dynamic Range Limiter flight
PV23 January 29th, 1998 Test flight
  April 21st, 1998 PHARUS Familiarisation end workshop
PV24 April 23rd, 1998 Test flight
PV25 April 23rd, 1998  Silver flight
PV26 April 29th, 1998 PHARUS Resolution Enhancement flight
PV28 January 25th, 1999 Noordwijk PHARUS ASAR Demonstrator sea flight
PV29 January 29th, 1999 Gorinchem Repeat Pass Interferometry

PV30 January 29th, 1999 Rhenen PHARUS ASAR Demonstrator land flight 
PV31 February 8, 1999 Freiburg

PV32 July 11, 1999  
PV33 July 19, 1999  
PV34 September 17, 1999  
PV35 October 12, 1999  
PV36 January 11, 2000 Duindigt, The Hague

Duindigt and Vlietlanden
PV37 February 3, 2000 Coast (land/sea)  
PV38 May 25, 2000 Coast (land/sea)  
PV39 May 25, 2000 Glasgow

PV40 May 30, 2000 Den Haag, Enschede
Wassenaarse slag
Wassenaarse slag

Enschede, twee weken na de vuurwerkramp
Enschede, two weeks after the fireworks disaster
PV41 June 14, 2000  
PV42 October 26, 2000  
PV43 June 14, 2001 Marsdiep
PV44 July 9, 2001 German islands

PV45 September 3, 2001  
PV46 September 18, 2001 River area  


Generic SAR processing tool with image of Voorburg, A4 and A13
Generic SAR processing tool with an image of Voorburg, A4 and A13